• Background
  • Food Crops Info
  • Cash Crops Info
  • Forests Info


Agriculture in Nigeria is a major branch of the economy in Nigeria, providing employment for 70% of the population. The sector is being transformed by commercialization at the small, medium and large-scale enterprise levels.
The country's agricultural products fall into three main groups:

food crops produced for home consumption,
cash crops for exports and forests for wood .
In 1990, 82 million hectares out of Nigeria's total land area of about 91 million hectares were found to be arable, although only 42 percent of the cultivable area was farmed. Much of this land was farmed under the bush fallow system, whereby land is left idle for a period of time to allow natural regeneration of soil fertility. 18 million hectares were classified as permanent pasture, but had the potential to support crops. Most of the 20 million hectares covered by forests and woodlands are believed to have agricultural potential.
Agricultural holdings are small and scattered, and farming is carried out with simple tools. Large-scale agriculture is not common. Agriculture contributed 32% to GDP in 2001.

Food crops

Major food crops include : Prior to the Nigerian civil war, the country was self-sufficient in food, but increased steeply after 1973. Bread made from American wheat replaced domestic crops as the cheapest staple food. The most important food crops are yams and manioc (cassava) in the south and sorghum and millet in the north.

Cash crops

The cash crops are for exports. The main cash crops include : Cocoa is the leading non-oil foreign exchange earner but the dominance of smallholders and lack of farm labor due to urbanization hold back production. In 1999, Nigeria produced 145,000 tons of cocoa beans, but has the potential for over 300,000 per year. Rubber is the second-largest non-oil foreign exchange earner.


Some of the forest trees available include :
  • Background
  • Fisheries
  • Livestock
  • Livestock
  • Livestock


Animal production in Nigeria can also be a major branch of the economy in Nigeria, providing employment for the population.

The country's animal production falls into the following main categories:

Fisheries , Livestock , Micro Livestock and Poultries .


Some of the fisheries produced include :


Some of the animals reared for livestock include :


Some of the animals reared for micro-livestock include :


Some of the animals reared for poultries include :
  • Background
  • Vegetation Map
  • Key Crops Areas of Production


The major vegetation belts in Nigeria include :
Short grass Savanna
Sokoto, Kano, Borno, Yobe, Katsina, Kebbi, Jigawa, Zamfara
Woodland and tall grass savanna
Adamawa, Kaduna, Bauchi, Plateau, Niger, Benue, Enugu, Kwara, Federal-Capital-Territory, Gombe, Taraba, Nassarawa, Ebonyi, Kogi
Rain Forest
Ondo, Ogun, Osun, Oyo, Edo, Imo, Cross-River, Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Delta, Anambra, Ekiti
Fresh water swamp
Rivers, Bayelsa

Vegatation Map


Key Crops Areas of Production

The Key crops and areas of production by state include :
palm kernel